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CBSE Class 11th Biology Notes for Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom

    Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom

  • Algae are chlorophyll-bearing, simple, thalloid, autotrophic and largely aquatic organisms.
  • The form and size of algae are highly variable.
  • They reproduce by vegetative, asexual and sexual methods.
  • They are divided into three main classes:
    • Chlorophyceae: Green algae
    • Phaeophyceae: Brown algae
    • Rhodophycaea: Red algae


  • These include the various mosses and liverworts that are found commonly growing in moist shaded areas in the hills.
  • They have a plant-like body.
  • They are divided into two types:
    • Liverworts: Grow usually in a moist, shady habitat
    • Mosses


  • Include horsetails and ferns.
  • Used for medicinal purposes and as soil binders.
  • Found in cool, shady, damp places though some may flourish well in sandy-soil conditions.


  • The plants in which the ovules are not enclosed by any ovary wall and remain exposed are called gymnosperms.
  • Include medium-sized trees or tall trees and shrubs.


  • The pollen grains and ovules are developed in specialized structures called flowers.
  • The seeds are enclosed by fruits.

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