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CBSE Class 10th Chemistry Notes for Chapter 4 Carbon and Its Compunds

Carbon atom forms covalent bonds. Covalent bonds are formed by sharing of an electron pair between two atoms.

  • Carbon forms bonds with other atoms of carbon. This gives rise to large molecules. This property is called catenation. The compounds thus formed have long chains of carbon.
  • Carbon has a valency of four and is therefore capable of bonding with four other carbon atoms or atoms of some other mono-valent element. The bonds formed by carbon with other elements are very strong which makes these compounds highly stable.

Carbon also forms compounds containing double and triple bonds between carbon atoms. These carbon chains may be in the form of straight chains, branched chains, or rings.
The ability of carbon to form chains gives rise to a homologous series of compounds in which the same functional group is attached to carbon chains at different lengths.
The functional groups such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids lead to the carbon compound having characteristic properties.

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