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CBSE Class 11th Chemistry Notes for Chapter 12 Organic Chemistry

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      UNIT 12 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
1. Acyclic or open chain compounds: These compounds are also called aliphatic compounds and consist of straight or branched chain.
2. Alicyclic or closed chain or ring compounds: These compounds contain carbon atoms joined in the form of a ring.
 
ISOMERISM
The phenomenon of existence of two or more compounds having the same molecular formula but different properties is known as isomerism. Such compounds are called isomers.
1. Structural isomerism: When compounds have the same molecular formula but different structures, it is called structural isomerism. Types of structural isomerism are:

  • Chain isomerism: Compounds have similar molecular formula but different carbon skeletons.
  • Position isomerism: Compounds differ in the position of substituent atom or functional group on the carbon skeleton.
  • Functional group isomerism: Compounds have the same molecular formula but different functional groups.
  • Metamerism: Compounds have different alkyl chains on either side of the functional group.

2. Stereoisomerism: When compounds have the same constitution and sequence of covalent bonds but differ in relative positions of their atoms or groups in space, it is known as stereoisomerism.
 
TYPES OF ORGANIC REACTIONS:

  • Substitution reactions
  • Addition reactions
  • Elimination reactions
  • Rearrangement reactions

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